Take Home Quiz


a. Radioactive decay is the process in which elements break down by releasing particles.

b. A composition of rock containing a radioactive element change over time because over a period of time they decay, and during this process the atoms of the element break down to form atoms of another element.



a. Geologist use radioactive dating to determine the absolute age of a rock.

b. It is very difficult to determine the absolute age of a sedimentary rock because the rock particles in a sedimentary rock are from other rocks, all of different ages. And the radioactive dating will only provide the age of the particles not the age of the sedimentary rock.

c. If a geologist finds a fossil in a layer of sedimentary rock that lies in between two igneous intrusions the geologist will determine the age of the fossil by using the law of super position or by determining the amount of a radioactive element in the rock and from there comparing the amount with the amount of the stable element into which the radioactive element decays.


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Opinion Question

If a salesperson offers to sell my family a new house right on a river bank for very little money I would personnaly hesitate for one main reason, this reason is safety. If I buy this house, there is a risk. This risk is that many floods may occur and these floods may indager my family and I. So, my final answer would be not to buy that house.

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Landslides and Mudflows

Landslides and Mudflows have many things in common, however they also have differences. Let me tell you some of them. First of all, mudflows nessisate ash from volcanoes to form, but landslides do not.  Second of all, mudflows often occur after heavy rains in a normally dry area but landslides occur where road builders have cut high ways through hills and mountains. Mudflows, also occur when rock and soil slide quickly down a steep slope.  Third of all, mud flows are much dangerous when they are in their full temperature, they transport but also burn everything in their way. Forth of all, is that landslides may contain huge masses of rock while mudflows may contain as high as 60 percent of water.
Let’s go to the similarities, one similarity is that both are factors of erosion, both nessicate water, more specificly rain. Another similarity is that both both can cause damage everywhere (mountains, hills, beaches). A third similarity, is that an earthquake can trigger both mudflows and landslides. A fourth similarity is that landslides and mudflows, both contain oil.

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Weathering Experiment

Weathering Experiment

Research Question:

How can different kind of liquids (soda, juice, and water) affect the rate of weathering of a rock?


We predict that the soda liquid will dissolve the rock faster because it contains gas and this is a kind of chemical weathering. We think that the gas will change the chemical composition of a rock and make it dissolve faster than water or juice.


Independent: three liquids (soda, juice, and water)

Dependent: three rocks

The time it will take to dissolve

Control: type of rock

Temperature of liquids(soda, juice, and water)

Condition of the three plastic cups

The Weather


Three plastic cups

Three plastic cups

Soda (coca), juice, water

One timer




  1. Gather all the materials needed.
  2. Take the three plastic cups and fill each one of them with one of the three different types of liquids (soda, juice, and water).
  3. Take the three rocks and put each one of them in one of the plastic cups.
  4. Use the timer to time how much time the rock needs to dissolve.


The unit used to measure in this experiment is the time in minutes because you need to calculate how much time it will tzke for one of the rocks to dissolve.




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Loss of Fertility

When soil loses its fertility, it can be damaged. People say, that soil is exhausted when it has lost it’s fertility!  During the 1800, this particular soil loss occurred in the South. Because of this many farmers had no choice but to leave their farms. But, in the 1900s in the state of Alabama, George Washington created new crops methods which helped to restore soil fertility in the South.  One crop that helped grow the soil fertile again was Peanut. Peanuts plants are legumes and legumes have “small lumps on their roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These ones create nitrogen and nitrogen is available in a form that plants can use.


Earth Science, Parentice Hall


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The Value of Soil

The loose weathered material on Earth’s surface in which plant can grow is called soil. Soil is one of Earth’s most valuable natural resources because everything depends on it, directly or in directly. Soil takes a lot of time to form. It may need 100s of years for only few centimeters. Only one eighth of the earth’s land has soils suited for farming. These are some examples that show that fertile soil is valuable because there is a limited supply.


Earth Science, Parentice Hall

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Soil Formation

How is soil formed?

Soil forms when rocks are broken down by weathering and are varied with other materials. Soil is always formed near bedrock. For soil to form, you first have to plant lichens. Lichens produce spores and don’t need resources (soil), instead they accumulate organic water. Lichens are plants which take a lot of time to grow. But, they don’t grow on dirt like many other plants they actually grow on rocks. Over time, they produce secret acids. These secret acids break down the rocks. This process is called weathering. The more the lichens grow, the more they produce soil. With that tiny bit of soil, living organisms such as plants are planted. But these plants are very small, so they provide us a small amount of soil. With that amount of soil, we plant other plants but a little bit bigger, these ones provide us more soil. With this soil we again plant living organisms but this time taller and larger plants. These plants afford us more soil. Later on, when we get a lot of soil, not only we have large plants, we now can have animals and fruits. These add organic water (air) and air provide life properties.


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Section 2 Assessment

What are two main ways in which soil organisms contribute to soil formation?

Two main ways in which soil organisms contribute to soil formation are first, making humus, the material that makes soil fertile. And second, mixing the soil and making spaces in it for air and water.

Give examples of three types of decomposers and describe their effect on soil.

Three types of decomposers are fungi, bacteria, and worms. Fungi are organisms such as molds and mushrooms. They grow on, and digest, plant remains. Bacteria are microscopic decompsers that cause decay. Bacteria attack dead organisms and their wastes in soils. Finally worms, they decompose dead organic material and mix it with the soil.

What would happen to soil if all decomposers were removed? Explain.

If all decomposers were removed, it would not be soil because if there are no decomposers nothing else can break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals, and soil need this step to be soil!



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Section 1 Assessment


    1. The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth’s surface.
    2. The process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves weathered rock or soil.
    3. Over a million of years, weathering and erosion do change a mountain made of solid rock. There are many ways weathering and erosion Change Mountains, I will tell you some of them. Heat, cold, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ice take a major part in weathering. For example, freezing over time can crack rocks apart into little pieces. Rainwater may dissolve minerals that bind rock together.  So, what generally weathering do, is break rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. In order to change a mountain, erosion must take place. Erosion is the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity.  Basically erosion carries away the rocks at Earth’s surface.  Now, weathering and erosion have officially changed a mountain made of solid rock because together they have broken down the mountain into small pieces and carry away the rocks at Earth’s surface.

2. A. The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.                                               B. The difference between mechanical and chemical weathering is that                                          mechanical weathering doesn’t change the rock’s composition but                                              chemical weathering does change the rock’s composition. However,                                          the similarity between chemical and mechanical weathering is that                                           they both are processes that break down rocks.

C. Chemical weathering= Water dissolving chemicals in rock, Acid                                                  Rain.  Mechanical Weathering= Freezing or Thawing, Oxidation,                                                Abrasion.

3. A. Two factors that may affect the rate of weathering are the climate                                             and the type of rock.                                                                                                                     B.If a granite monument is placed outside for 200 years in a region                                              with a cool dry, climate, its rate of weathering will not be fast                                                      because the climate is dry and cool. (Normal) This result leads to                                              not a lot of water which causes a changing of color or braking down.                                          (Weathering).

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